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The Emergency Contraception Website - Your website for the "Morning After"


See our list of Publications about Emergency Contraception.

Search the EC Materials Database for descriptions of emergency contraception educational and promotional materials from the United States and abroad, including client materials, provider education and training resources, and media campaign materials.

Links to Information about Contraception and Reproductive Health

Publications about Emergency Contraception:

  1. Trussell J, Raymond E. Emergency contraception: a cost-effective approach to preventing unintended pregnancy.  A regularly updated review of the current literature, published online at Princeton University. September 2012.
  2. American Academy of Pediatrics, Committee on Adolescence. Policy Statement: Emergency Contraception. Pediatrics. 2012; published online.
  3. American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists. Emergency Contraception. ACOG Practice Bulletin, Number 112. Washington DC: The American College of Obstetrics and Gynecologists, May 2010. To order, call 508-750-8400. Also available in Obstetrics & Gynecology 2010;115:1100-1109.
  4. Arowojolu AO, Okewole IA, Adekunle AO. Comparative evaluation of the effectiveness and safety of two regimens of levonorgestrel for emergency contraception in Nigerians. Contraception 2002;66:269-273.
  5. Baecher L, Weaver MA, Raymond EG. Increased access to emergency contraception: why it may fail. Hum Reprod. 2009;24:815-9.
  6. Belzer M, Sanchez K, Olson J, Jacobs AM, Tucker D. Advance supply of emergency contraception: a randomized trial in adolescent mothers. Journal of Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology 2005;18:347-354.
  7. Brache V, Cochon L, Jesam C, Maldonado R, Salvatierra AM, Levy DP, Gainer E, Croxatto HB. Immediate preovulatory administration of 30 mg ulipristal acetate significantly delays follicular rupture. Hum Reprod. 2010;25:2256-63.

  8. Cantor J, Baum K.  The limits of conscientious objection – May pharmacists fefuse to fill prescriptions for emergency contraception? New England Journal of Medicine 2005;51:2008-2012.
  9. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. U S. Medical Eligibility Criteria for Contraceptive Use, 2010. MMWR 2010;59:1-85.
  10. Chen QJ, Xiang WP, Zhang DK, Wang RP, Luo YF, Kang JZ, Cheng LN. Efficacy and safety of a levonorgestrel enteric-coated tablet as an over-the-counter drug for emergency contraception: a Phase IV clinical trial. Hum Reprod 2011;26:2316-2321.
  11. Cheng L, Che Y, Chen Q, Gülmezoglu AM. Interventions for emergency contraception. Cochrane Database Sys Rev. 2012, Issue 3.
  12. Chin-Quee, DS, Wedderburn, M, Otterness, C, Janowitz, B, Chen-Mok, M. Bridging emergency contraceptive pill users to regular contraception: Results from a randomized trial in Jamaica. Contraception. 2010;81:133-139.
  13. Cleland K, Zhu H, Goldstruck N, Cheng L, Trussell J. The efficacy of IUDs for emergency contraception: a systematic review of 35 years of experience. Hum Reprod. 2012;27:1994-2000.
  14. Cleland K, Peipert J, Westhoff C, Spear S, Trussell J. Plan B, One Step not taken: politics trumps science yet again. Contraception. 2012;85:340-341.
  15. Cleland K, Raymond E, Trussell J, Cheng L, Haoping Z. Ectopic pregnancy and emergency contraception: a systematic review. Obstet Gynecol. 2010;115:1263-6.
  16. Creinin MD, Schlaff W, Archer D, Wan L, Frezieres R, Thomas M, Rosenberg M, Higgins J. Progesterone receptor modulator for emergency contraception: a randomized controlled trial. Obstetrics & Gynecology 2006;108:1089-1097.
  17. Cremer M, Holland E, Adams B, Klausner D, Nichols S, Ram RS, Alonzo T. Adolescent comprehension of emergency contraception in New York City. Obstetrics & Gynecology 2009;113:840-744.
  18. Croxatto HB, Brache V, Pavez M, Cochon L, Forcelledo ML, Alvarez F, Massai R, Faundes A, Salvatierra AM. Pituitary-ovarian function following the standard levonorgestrel emergency contraceptive dose or a single 0.75-mg dose given on the days preceding ovulation. Contraception 2004;70:442-450.
  19. Croxatto HB, Ortiz ME, Müller AL.  Mechanisms of action of emergency contraception.  Steroids 2003;68:1095-1098.
  20. Croxatto HB, Devoto L, Durand M, Ezcurra E, Larrea F, Nagle C, Ortiz ME, Vantman D, Vega M, von Hertzen H. Mechanism of action of hormonal preparations used for emergency contraception: a review of the literature. Contraception 2001;63:111-121.
  21. Dada OA, Godfrey EM, Gilda Piaggio G, von Hertzen H. A randomized, double-blind, noninferiority study to compare two regimens of levonorgestrel for emergency contraception in Nigeria. Contraception. 2010;82:373-78.
  22. Davidoff F, Trussell J. Plan B and the politics of doubt. Journal of the American Medical Association 2006;296:1775-1778.
  23. Drazen J, Greene M, Wood A. The FDA, politics, and Plan B. New England Journal of Medicine 2004;350:1561-1562.
  24. Durand M, Sépala M, del Carmen Cravioto M, Koistinen H, Koistinen R, González-Macedo J, Larrea F. Late follicular phase administration of levonorgestrel as an emergency contraceptive changes the secretory pattern of glycodelin in serum and endometrium during the luteal phase of the menstrual cycle. Contraception 2005;71:451-457.
  25. Ellertson C, Webb A, Blanchard K, Bigrigg A, Haskell S, Shochet T, Trussell J. Modifying the Yuzpe regimen of emergency contraception: a multicenter randomized controlled trial. Obstetrics & Gynecology 2003;101:1160-1167.
  26. Ellertson C, Evans M, Ferden S, Leadbetter C, Spears A, Johnstone K, Trussell J. Extending the time limit for starting the Yuzpe regimen of emergency contraception to 120 hours. Obstetrics & Gynecology 2003;101:1168-1171.
  27. Ellertson C, Trussell J, Stewart F, Winikoff B. Should emergency contraceptive pills be available without prescription? Journal of the American Women’s Association 1998;53:226-229, 232.
  28. Faculty of Family Planning and Reproductive Health Care Clinical Effectiveness Unit. FFPRHC Guidance April 2006. Emergency contraception. Journal of Family Planning and Reproductive Health Care 2006;32:121-128.
  29. Family Health International. Adolescents and emergency contraceptive pills in developing countries.  Research Triangle Park, NC: Family Health International Working Paper Series, May 2005. 
  30. Fine P, Mathe H, Ginde S, Cullins V, Morfesis J, Gainer E. Ulipristal acetate taken 48–120 hours after intercourse for emergency contraception. Obstetrics & Gynecology 2010;115:257-263.
  31. Finer LB, Zolna MR. Unintended pregnancy in the United States: incidence and disparities, 2006. Contraception. 2011;84:478-85.
  32. Finer LB, Henshaw SK. Disparities in rates of unintended pregnancy in the United States, 1994 and 2001. Perspectives on Sexual and Reprodutive Health 2006;38:90-96.
  33. Food and Drug Administration. Prescription drug products: certain combined oral contraceptives for use as postcoital emergency contraception. Federal Register 1997;62:8610-8612.
  34. Foster DG, Raine TR, Brindis C, Rostovtseva DP, Darney PD. Should providers give women advance provision of emergency contraceptive pills? A cost-effectiveness analysis. Womens Health Issues. 2010;20:242-7.
  35. Foster DG, Rostovtseva DP, Brindis CD, Biggs MA, Hulett D, Darney PD. Cost savings from the provision of specific methods of contraception in a publicly funded program. Am J Public Health. 2009;99:446-51.
  36. Gainer E, Massai R, Lillo S, Reyes V, Forcelledo ML, Caviedes R, Villarroel C, Bouyer J. Levonorgestrel pharmacokinetics in plasma and milk of lactating women who take 1.5 mg for emergency contraception. Hum Reprod. 2007;22:1578-84.
  37. Gainer E, Kenfack B, Mboudou E, Doh AS, Bouyer J. Menstrual bleeding patterns following levonorgestrel emergency contraception. Contraception 2006;74:118-124.
  38. Gardner JS, Hutchings J, Fuller TS, Downing D. Increasing access to emergency contraception through community pharmacies: lessons from Washington State.  Family Planning Perspectives 2001;33:172-175.
  39. Gemzell-Danielsson K. Mechanism of action of emergency contraception. Contraception. 2010;82:404-409.
  40. Glasier A, Cameron ST, Blithe D, Scherrer B, Mathe H, Levy D, Gainer E, Ulmann A. Can we identify women at risk of pregnancy despite using emergency contraception? Data from randomized trials of ulipristal acetate and levonorgestrel. Contraception. 2011;84:363-7.

  41. Glasier A, Cameron S, Fine P, Logan S, Casale W, Van Horn J, Sogor L, Blithe D, Scherrer B, Mathe H, Jaspart A, Ulmann A, Gainer E. Ulipristal acetate versus levonorgestrel for emergency contraception: a randomised non-inferiority trial and meta-analysis. Lancet 2010;375:555-562.
  42. Glasier A. Emergency contraception: is it worth all the fuss? British Medical Journal 2006;333:560-561.
  43. Glasier A, Fairhurst K, Wyke S, Ziebland S, Seaman P, Walker J, Lakha F.  Advanced provision of emergency contraception does not reduce abortion rates.  Contraception 2004;69:361-366.
  44. Glasier A, Baird D. The effects of self-administering emergency contraception. New England Journal of Medicine 1998;339:1-4. (You may order a reprint.) Glasier A. Emergency postcoital contraception. New England Journal of Medicine 1997;33:1058-1064. (You may order a reprint.)
  45. Gold MA, Wolford JE, Smith KA, Parker AM. The effects of advance provision of emergency contraception on adolescent women’s sexual and contraceptive behaviors. Journal of Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology 2004;17:87-96.
  46. Grimes DA. Switching emergency contraception to over-the-counter status. New England Journal of Medicine 2002;347:846-848.
  47. Grimes DA, Raymond EG, Scott Jones B. Emergency contraception over-the-counter: the medical and legal imperatives. Obstetrics & Gynecology 2001;98:151-155.
  48. Grimes DA. Emergency contraception – expanding opportunities for primary prevention. New England Journal of Medicine 1997;337:1078-1079.
  49. Halpern V, Raymond EG, Lopez LM. Repeated use of pre- and postcoital hormonal contraception for prevention of pregnancy. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2010;1.
  50. Harper CC, Cheong M, Rocca CH, Darney PD, Raine TR. The effect of increased access to emergency contraception among young adolescents.  Obstetrics & Gynecology 2005;106:483-491.
  51. Harrison T. Availability of emergency contraception: a survey of hospital emergency department staff. Annals of Emergency Medicine 2005;46:105-110.
  52. Hatcher RA, Trussell J, Stewart F, Nelson A, Cates W, Guest F, Kowal D. Contraceptive Technology: Twentieth Revised Edition. New York NY: Ardent Media, 2011.

  53. Hester KE, Harper MJK, Duffy DM. Oral administration of the cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) inhibitor meloxicam blocks ovulation in non-human primates when administered to simulate emergency contraception. Hum Reprod. 2010;25:360-7.
  54. Hu X, Cheng L, Hua X, Glasier A. Advanced provision of emergency contraception to postnatal women in China makes no difference in abortion rates: a randomized controlled trial. Contraception 2005;72:111-116.

  55. Jackson RA, Schwarz EB, Freedman L, Darney P. Advance supply of emergency contraception: effect on use and usual contraception – a randomized trial. Obstetrics & Gynecology 2003;102:8-16.

  56. Jesam C, Salvatierra AM, Schwartz JL, Croxatto HB. Suppression of follicular rupture with meloxicam, a cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitor: potential for emergency contraception. Hum Reprod. 2010;25:368-73.
  57. Jones RK, Darroch JE, Henshaw SK. Contraceptive use among U.S. women having abortions in 2000-2001. Perspectives on Sexual and Reproductive Health 2002;34:294-303.
  58. Kavanaugh KL, Williams SL, Shwarz EB. Emergency contraception use and counseling after changes in United States prescription status. Fertility and Sterility 2011;95:2578-2581.
  59. Lo SS, Fan SYS, Ho PC, Glasier AF.  Effect of advanced provision of emergency contraception on women’s contraceptive behavior: a randomized controlled trial.  Human Reproduction 2004;19:2404-2410.

  60. Marions L, Cekan SZ, Bygdeman M, Gemzell-Danielsson K. Effect of emergency contraception with levonorgestrel or mifepristone on ovarian function. Contraception 2004;69:373-377.

  61. Marston C, Meltzer H, Majeed A. Impact on contraceptive practice of making emergency hormonal contraception available over the counter in Great Britain: repeated cross sectional surveys. British Medical Journal 2005;331:271-273.
  62. Massai MR, Forcelledo ML, Brache V, Tejada AS, Salvatierra AM, Reyes MV, Alvarez F, Faúndes A, Croxatto HB. Does meloxicam increase the incidence of anovulation induced by single administration of levonorgestrel in emergency contraception? A pilot study. Hum Reprod 2007;22:434-9.
  63. McCarthy SK. Availability of emergency contraceptive pills at university and college student health centers. Journal of American College Health 2002;51:15-22.
  64. Medical eligibility criteria for contraceptive use. Third Edition. Geneva: World Health Organization, 2004.
  65. Moreau C, Trussell J. Results from pooled phase III studies of ulipristal acetate for emergency contraception. Contraception 2012;86:673-680.
  66. Moreau C, Bajos N, Trussell J. The impact of pharmacy access on emergency contraceptive pills in France. Contraception 2006;73:602-608.
  67. Ngai SW, Fan S, Li S, Cheng L, Ding J, Jing X, Ng EHY, Ho PC. A randomized trial to compare 24h versus 12h double dose regimen of levonorgestrel for emergency contraception.  Human Reproduction 2004;20:307-311.
  68. Noé G, Croxatto HB, Salvatierra AM, Reyes V, Villarroel C, Muñoz C, Morales G, Retamales A. Contraceptive efficacy of emergency contraception with levonorgestrel given before or after ovulation. Contraception 2011;84:486-492.

  69. Novikova N, Weisberg E, Stanczyk FZ, Croxatto HB, Fraser, IS. Effectiveness of levonorgestrel emergency contraception given before or after ovulation – a pilot study. Contraception 2007;75:112-118.
  70. Ortiz ME, Ortiz RE, Fuentes MA, Parraguez VH, Croxatto HB. Postcoital administration of levonorgestrel does not interfere with post-fertilization events in the new-world monkey Cebus apella. Human Reproduction 2004;19:1352-1356.
  71. Palomino WA, Kohen P, Devoto L. A single midcycle dose of levonorgestrel similar to emergency contraceptive does not alter the expression of the L-selectin ligand or molecular markers of endometrial receptivity. Fertil Steril. 2010;94:1589-94.

  72. Piaggio G, Kapp N, von Hertzen H. Effect on pregnancy rates of the delay in the administration of levonorgestrel for emergency contraception: a combined analysis of four WHO trials. Contraception. 2011;84:35-39.

  73. Piaggio G, von Hertzen H, Grimes DA, Van Look PFA. Timing of emergency contraception with levonorgestrel or the Yuzpe regimen. Lancet 1999;353:721.
  74. Polis CB, Grimes DA, Schaffer K, Blanchard K, Glasier A, Harper CC. Advance provision of emergency contraception for pregnancy prevention (full review). Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2010, Issue 3.

  75. Raine T, Ricciotti N, Sokoloff A, Brown B, Hummel A, Harper C. An over-the-counter simulation study of a single-tablet emergency contraceptive in young females. Obstetrics & Gynecology. 2012;119:772-779.

  76. Raine T, Harper C, Rocca C, Fischer R, Padian N, Klausner J, Darney P. Direct access to emergency contraception through pharmacies and effect on unintended pregnancy and STIs.  Journal of the American Medical Association 2005;293:54-62.

  77. Raine T, Harper C, Leon K, Darney P. Emergency contraception: advance provision in a young, high-risk clinic population. Obstetrics & Gynecology 2000;96:1-7.
  78. Raymond EG, Weaver MA. Effect of an emergency contraceptive pill intervention on pregnancy risk behavior. Contraception 2008;77:333-336.
  79. Raymond EG, Trussell J, Polis C. Population impact of increased access to emergency contraceptive pills: a systematic review. Obstetrics & Gynecology 2007;109:181-188.
  80. Raymond EG, Goldberg A, Trussell J, Hays M, Roach E, Taylor D. Bleeding patterns after use of levonorgestrel emergency contraceptive pills. Contraception 2006;73:376-381. Erratum. Contraception 2006;74:349-350.
  81. Raymond EG, Stewart F, Weaver M, Monteith C, Van Der Pol B. Impact of increased access to emergency contraceptive pills: a randomized controlled trial. Obstetrics & Gynecology 2006;108:1098-1106.
  82. Raymond EG, Taylor D, Trussell J, Steiner MJ.  Minimum effectiveness of the levonorgestrel regimen of emergency contraception.  Contraception 2004;69:79-81.
  83. Raymond EG, Creinin MD, Barnhart KT, Lovvorn AE, Rountree W, Trussell J. Meclizine for prevention of nausea associated with emergency contraceptive pills: a randomized trial. Obstetrics & Gynecology 2000;95:271-277.
  84. Rodrigues I, Grou F, Joly J. Effectiveness of emergency contraception pills between 72 and 120 hours after unprotected sexual intercourse. American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology 2001;184:531-537.
  85. Samartzis E, Merki-Feld G, Seifert B, Kut E, Imthrun B. Six years after deregulation of emergency contraception in Switzerland: Has free accses induced changes in the profile of clients attending an emergency pharmacy in Zurich? Eur J Contraception and Reprod Health Care 2012; online 1-8.
  86. Sambol N, Harper C, Kim L, Liu C, Darney P, Raine T. Pharmacokinetics of single-dose levonorgestrel in adolescents. Contraception 2006;74:104-109.
  87. Steinbrook R. Waiting for Plan B – The FDA and Nonprescription Use of Emergency Contraception. New England Journal of Medicine 2004;350:2327-2329.
  88. Stewart F and Trussell J. Prevention of pregnancy resulting from rape. American Journal of Preventive Medicine 2000;19:228-229.
  89. Soon JA, Levine M, Osmond BL, Ensom MH, Fielding DW. Effects of making emergency contraception available without a physician’s prescription: a population-based study. Canadian Medical Association Journal 2005;172:878-883.
  90. Stratton P, Levens E, Hartog B, Piquion J, Wei Q, Merino M, Nieman L. Endometrial effects of a single early luteal dose of the selective progesterone receptor modulator CDB-2915. Fertility and Sterility 2010;93:2035-2041.
  91. Task Force on Postovulatory Methods of Fertility Regulation. Randomised controlled trial of levonorgestrel versus the Yuzpe regimen of combined oral contraceptives for emergency contraception. Lancet 1998;352:428-433.
  92. Trussell J, Raymond E, Stewart FH. Advance supply of emergency contraception: a randomized trial in adolescent mothers [Letter to the editor]. Journal of Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology 2006;19:251.
  93. Trussell J, Jordan B. Mechanism of action of emergency contraceptive pills. Contraception 2006;74:87-89.
  94. Trussell J, Calabretto H. Cost savings from use of emergency contraceptive pills in Australia. Australian and New Zealand Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology 2005;45:308-311.
  95. Trussell J, Hedley A, Raymond E.  Ectopic pregnancy following use of progestin-only ECPs [letter].  Journal of Family Planning and Reproductive Health Care 2003;29:249.
  96. Trussell J, Shochet T.  Cost-effectiveness of emergency contraceptive pills in the public sector in the USA.  Expert Review of Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research 2003;3:433-440.
  97. Trussell J, Wiebe E, Shochet T, Guilbert É. Cost savings from emergency contraceptive pills in Canada.  Obstetrics & Gynecology 2001;97:789-93.
  98. Trussell J, Duran V, Shochet T, Moore K. Access to emergency contraception. Obstetrics & Gynecology 2000;95:267-270.
  99. Trussell J, Raymond EG. Statistical evidence about the mechanism of action of the Yuzpe regimen of emergency contraception. Obstetrics & Gynecology 1999;93:872-876.
  100. Trussell J, Rodríguez G, Ellertson C. Updated estimates of the effectiveness of the Yuzpe method of emergency contraception. Contraception 1999;59:147-151.
  101. Trussell J, Koenig, J, Ellertson C, Stewart, F. Preventing unintended pregnancy: the cost-effectiveness of three methods of emergency contraception. American Journal of Public Health, 1997;87:932-937.
  102. Trussell J, Koenig J, Stewart F, Darroch JE.  Medical care cost savings from adolescent contraceptive use.  Family Planning Perspectives 1997;29:248-55, 295.
  103. Trussell J, Ellertson C. The efficacy of emergency contraception. Fertility Control Reviews 1995;4:8-11.
  104. Trussell J, Stewart F, Guest F, Hatcher RA. Emergency contraceptive pills: a simple proposal to reduce unintended pregnancies. Family Planning Perspectives 1992;24:269-273.
  105. United States Government Accountability OfficeFood and Drug Administration Decision Process to Deny Initial Application for Over-the-Counter Marketing of Emergency Contraceptive Drug Plan B Was Unusual.  November 2005.
  106. von Hertzen H, Piaggio G, Ding J, Chen J, Song S, Bártfai G, Ng E, Gemzell-Danielsson K, Oyunbileg A, Wu S, Cheng W, Lüdicke F, Pretnar-Darovec A, Kirkman R, Mittal S, Khomassuridze A, Apter D, Peregoudov A. Low dose mifepristone and two regimens of levonorgestrel for emergency contraception: a WHO multicentre randomised trial. Lancet 2002;360:1803-1810.
  107. Weaver MA, Raymond EG, Baecher L. Attitude and behavior effects in a randomized trial of increased access to emergency contraception. Obstet Gynecol 2009;113:107-16.
  108. Wilkinson T, Fahey N, Suther E, Cabral H, Silverstein M. Access to emergency contraception for adolescents. JAMA 2012;307:362-363.
  109. Wilkinson T, Fahey N, Shields C, Suther E, Cabral H, Silverstein M. Pharmacy communication to adolescents and their physicians regarding access to emergency contraception. Pediatrics 2012;129:624-629.
  110. Wood AJJ, Drazen JM, Green MF.  A Sad Day for Science at the FDA.  New England Journal of Medicine 2005;353:1197-1199.
  111. Wood SF.  Women’s Health and the FDA. New England Journal of Medicine 2005;353:1650-1651.
  112. Wu S, Dong J, Cong J, Wang C, VonHertzen H, Godfrey EM. Gestrinone compared with mifepristone for emergency contraception: a randomized controlled trial. Obstet Gynecol. 2010;115:740-4.
  113. Wynn LL, Trussell J. The social life of emergency contraception in the United States: disciplining pharmaceutical use, disciplining women’s sexuality, and constructing zygotic bodies. Medical Anthropology Quarterly 2006;20:297-320.
  114. Wynn LL, Trussell J. Images of American sexuality in debates over nonprescription access to emergency contraceptive pills. Obstetrics & Gynecology 2006;108:1272-1276.
  115. Wynn LL, Trussell J. The morning after on the internet: usage of and questions to the emergency contraception website. Contraception 2005;72:5-13.
  116. Yuzpe AA, Lancee WJ.  Ethinylestradiol and dl-norgestrel as a postcoital contraceptive.  Fertility and Sterility 1977;28:932-936. 
  117. Yuzpe AA, Thurlow HJ, Ramzy I, Leyshon JI.  Post Coital Contraception: A Pilot Study.  Journal of Reproductive Medicine 1974;13:53-58.



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